Which Bank Is Leveraged 104:1?

The road to hell is paved with positive carry.

Those in financial circles likely know that the above quote is a colloquialism used to highlight that excessive leverage can generate cash flow, that is the positive carry, but that ultimately unless properly and prudently unwound the leverage itself can lead to financial armageddon. We have witnessed this scenario time and again.

Wall Street specifically and our economy at large are continuing to lick their wounds and attempting to recapitalize from the “road to hell” we experienced beginning in 2008. While the financial system as a whole deleverages, Ben Bernanke and his minions within the Federal Reserve have leveraged up in an attempt to ‘ease the pain’. Just yesterday, Fed officials highlighted that they would continue to leverage up if need be.

In the process, I believe they will simply be moving further down that road to you know where.

Just how much has the Fed leveraged up? Let’s navigate.

Thanks to a regular reader for sharing a story recently released by Forbes which inquires, Could a Federal Reserve Bank Go Bust?,

Citigroup and Bank of America are not permitted to use such accounting. Market losses on tradable securities hit their balance sheets. The discipline forces commercial banks to do a pretty good job of matching assets and liabilities in interest rate sensitivity. The Fed has no such discipline.

So far this year interest rates have trended down, not up, and the Fed’s profits are robust.  Where do the profits go? A $1.6 billion sliver goes to commercial banks as dividends on their shares of stock in the 12 Fed banks. Most of the Fed’s net income goes back to the U.S. Treasury as a fee for the right to issue banknotes.

Like commercial enterprises, the Federal Reserve banks have an equity cushion to cover losses. But not much of one. The system has a Lehman Brothers-style leverage of 55 to 1. At the New York bank, the one that Timothy Geithner used to run, leverage is 104-to-1.

104:1!! YIKES!! Yes, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York is carrying $104 of assets for every $1 of equity capital. Does that sound like a house of cards to you? You think??!!

We all know that Ben Bernanke and his sidekick Timmy-boy remain the dealers extraordinaire in the shell game that masquerades as our capital markets but what happens if and when Ben and Timmy lose control.

Why do Ben and Tim quake and quiver while the debate on the raising the debt ceiling continues? For the very simple reason that raising the debt ceiling is a necessary function which allows the shell game to continue and is needed to allow the Fed to unwind this leverage. Hopefully!!

Make no mistake, though, the shell game and the road to hell are fraught with very real risks. How so?

Until the Great Recession, the Fed limited its purchases of Treasury paper to short-term bills that carry no interest rate risk. The 2008 financial crisis changed that.

The Fed banks began buying risky assets on a large scale: longer-dated Treasury paper and mortgage securities. There’s little credit risk here (the U.S. Treasury stands behind most of the paper), but there is rate risk. When interest rates rise, bond prices go down.

Not to worry, insists Glenn Rudebusch, an economist at the San Francisco Federal Reserve Bank. In a paper published in April he notes that those bonds and mortgage securities are worth more than their purchase prices. The Fed, he proudly recounts, is still gloriously profitable.

Perhaps the Fed is profitable on paper, BUT what if the Fed had to sell their holdings? What if the market value of the Fed’s holdings plummeted and creditors were less willing to provide financing for all those borrowed funds which the Fed needs given its leverage?

But what if inflation shoots up? To restrain it, Bernanke would have to crimp the money supply. To do that he would have to sell some of those securities he’s been buying.

The hitch is that higher inflation means higher interest rates, and higher rates mean falling prices on the Fannie Maes and Treasury bonds. Sales at a loss would eat into the equity capital. To patch up the hole in its balance sheet the Fed would have to beg Congress or the U.S. Treasury for a bailout.

Ron Paul’s worst nightmare.

In this scenario there is no bankruptcy of the sort that has the sheriff carting off the furniture. There would merely be loss of face for the august institution Bernanke runs and a consequent loss of confidence in the dollar.

Says the Shadow Financial Regulatory Committee in a statement critiquing Bernanke’s quantitative easing: “Fed insolvency is not necessarily a low-probability event, and therefore, its consequences for monetary policy and reputation of the Fed are potentially important and worthy of consideration.”

It’s a polite way of saying that there could be a run on the bank. Federal Reserve notes are trust-me money. Do you trust the Fed?

Do you? Why do you think the shiny yellow stuff is regularly making new highs? A lack of trust.

About Larry Doyle 522 Articles

Larry Doyle embarked on his Wall Street career in 1983 as a mortgage-backed securities trader for The First Boston Corporation. He was involved in the growth and development of the secondary mortgage market from its near infancy.

After close to 7 years at First Boston, Larry joined Bear Stearns in early 1990 as a mortgage trader. In 1993, Larry was named a Senior Managing Director at the firm. He left Bear to join Union Bank of Switzerland in late 1996 as Head of Mortgage Trading.

In 1998, after 15 years of trading and precipitated by Swiss Bank’s takeover of UBS, Larry moved from trading to sales as a senior salesperson at Bank of America. His move into sales led him to the role as National Sales Manager for Securitized Products at JP Morgan Chase in 2000. He was integrally involved in developing the department, hiring 40 salespeople, and generating $300 million in sales revenue. He left JP Morgan in 2006.

Throughout his career, Larry eagerly engaged clients and colleagues. He has mentored dozens of junior colleagues, recruited at a number of colleges and universities, and interviewed hundreds. He has also had extensive public speaking experience. Additionally, Larry served as Chair of the Mortgage Trading Committee for the Public Securities Association (PSA) in the mid-90s.

Larry graduated Cum Laude, Phi Beta Kappa in 1983 from the College of the Holy Cross.

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