The trade boom is fading. That’s no great surprise, given the weakening state of the global economy. But the slippage in export-related activity comes at an especially challenging moment for the U.S.
Exports remained a bright spot for the U.S. economy last year. As other areas weakened in 2008, the American export machine bucked the trend. It was a timely boost, offering some hope that the approaching recession might be mitigated and perhaps even sidestepped altogether.
The high point came in last year’s second quarter, when real (inflation-adjusted) export activity soared 12.3% on an annualized basis while GDP advanced 2.8%. That took some of the sting out of the drop in durable goods spending and a growing sense of unease otherwise in the GDP trend. In the third quarter, the export boom slowed but remained robust, rising 3.0%, in sharp contrast to the 0.5% decline in GDP.
The long-suffering dollar was no small advantage for juicing exports. As the greenback declined against foreign currencies, the price cuts on American goods and services became increasingly attractive in the global economy. Then in July 2008, the dollar began to rally. Although the U.S. Dollar Index has been trading in a range recently, it’s still up sharply from its summer lows.
It was a tempting notion, although we warned at time about expecting too much from the trend. “There’s a limit to how much economic gain any nation can enjoy through a weakening of its currency,” CS wrote in July. “Devaluation may offer short-term benefits, but the U.S. can’t devalue its way to prosperity for very long.”
The dollar’s strength at the moment surely isn’t helping U.S. exporting activity, nor is the credit crisis or the general economic turmoil blowing through economies around the world. Few analysts expected the fourth quarter GDP report to deliver anything other than a negative number. Today’s trade update for November only strengthens that forecast. Exports dropped nearly 5.8% last month, the fourth consecutive montly decline.
No one will be shocked by the trend, although it’s a humbling reminder that the economy has nowhere to hide. As we discussed on Friday, this is the eye of the economic hurricane and for the moment, all news from the dismal science is likely to be discouraging news. Not forever, but for a few quarters at least. Time moves slowly when you’re waiting for the bottom.